Infertility is defined as being unable to conceive a child after 12 consecutive months of actively attempting to conceive. Infertility issues can occur in both women and men. In men, fertility problems typically occur as a result of:
Most of these issues can be diagnosed with sperm sample evaluation or a physical exam to help determine erectile issues. Fertility issues in women can be far more complex and can include:
Fertility problems also become more common as a woman ages. Certain medical treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy can also cause problems with fertility.
Diagnosis begins with a physical exam and a review of the patient’s medical history, followed by blood work and sometimes diagnostic imaging to look for structural problems. In-depth exams using special instruments may also be performed to see inside the uterus and fallopian tubes.
That depends on the underlying cause of fertility problems. Typically, the first course of fertility treatment uses so-called fertility drugs to help stimulate ovulation. These medications are less costly than other approaches, making them a good first-line approach for most patients. When this approach is not effective or not appropriate, other options include IVF (in vitro fertilization) and IUI (intrauterine insemination or “artificial” insemination). Dr. Medrano will start patients on hormonal or fertility treatments, but if IVF or IUI is needed, Dr. Medrano will refer you to an IVF/IUI specialist, and then resume prenatal care when pregnancy has occurred.
IVF success rates range from about 20 percent to about 40 percent per cycle; IUI success rates are slightly lower. Success rates decline as a woman ages.
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